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Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration progressive eye condition in which part of the retina, called the macula, is damaged, resulting in loss of central vision.

There are two main types of macular degeneration: “wet” macular degeneration and more common “dry” macular degeneration.

Macular degeneration is the most common in people of European descent over the age of 55.

The cause of macular degeneration is not fully understood, but there is an inherited genetic predisposition, and exposure factors of smoking, diet and sun may play a role.

Macular degeneration can not be cured, but can slow the progress of the condition in some people, if treated promptly.


Macular degeneration progressive eye condition in which the macula (the central retina) were damaged, causing a gradual loss of central, detailed vision. Central vision allows us to see fine details when we look at something and immediately necessary for driving, reading, recognizing faces, and doing close work such as sewing.

Retina is the light-sensitive membrane at the back of the eye that functions like the film in a camera. If the film is warped or damaged, it will record images “picture by eye”.

The macula degenerate as a result of aging. Small yellow or white deposits called “drusen” form under the macula in normal eyes as they age. Drusen may cause macular degeneration. Macular degeneration occurs when the retinal pigment epithelium, a layer of insulation between the retina and the layer of blood vessels behind the retina (called the choroid) ceases to operate efficiently. May be damaged by macular blood vessels grow under the retina. The blood vessels may leak fluid or bleed (wet macular degeneration), or may degenerate retina (macular degeneration dry).

Dry macular degeneration

It is the most common form of macular degeneration. When the eyes examined, the retina appears to be rejected in some areas and seem to be healthy in other areas. Macular damage is permanent, because it is impossible for to grow back or heal. No eye drops, tablets, glasses, surgery or alternative therapy that is proven to restore lost vision. However, you are blind from this condition and keep your eyes around. This disease is slow to progress, and the rate of progress may be very slow. This condition eventually stabilized.

Wet macular degeneration

Wet macular degeneration is much less common. It is faster growing, but it also does not cause blindness, peripheral vision maintained, and some people will be treated to retain some useful vision.

Occurs when abnormal blood vessels develop under the retina and leak fluid, or bleeding under the retina. Finally disappeared fluid, or blood vessels, but central vision permanently damaged, and scar formed.

Other macular disease

With macular degeneration and disease rarely occurs in young patients. Some of these conditions are genetic, while others may be caused by infection and inflammation or an underlying condition, such as diabetes.

Causes and risk factors

The cause of macular degeneration is not fully understood, but there are inherited genetic predisposition to the condition, and smoking, dietary factors and sun exposure over many years can play the role.

Macular degeneration is the most common in people of European descent over the age of 55.

Symptoms and signs

Symptoms and signs include:

Blurred central vision – difficulty when reading and engaging in other activities that require a good, good eyesight

Loss of central vision – dark or empty spaces

Distorted central vision – straight lines may appear wavy

Peripheral vision is almost always remained normal, however.


An ophthalmologist (eye specialist) will examine your eyes and notice the changes in the properties of the retina.


See an ophthalmologist for a routine checkup. You can also monitor the condition of your own using the Amsler Grid, which enables the patient or specialist eye to mild damage or changes in vision.

This test, you have to wear contact lenses or glasses you usually spend reading. If you use glasses, you should look through the reading portion of the lens.

Pressing the grid at a comfortable reading distance (usually about 30 to 35 centimeters), you have to focus on a point in the middle of the grid. Curly place each, blurred or blank spot region is observed marked grid, allowing for future monitoring of the progress of the condition.

Furthermore (probe) test

If visible damage – tracked by day-to-day use of the Amsler Grid – occurs or if notification of changes to the eye doctor, fluorescein angiogram (or equivalent method) were performed to further assess the macula and to see if a treatable form of macular degeneration. If any changes in the Amsler grid, see your eye doctor immediately. Is a series of pictures taken after dye is injected into a vein of fluorescein angiography. The pictures show the presence of abnormal fluid in the eye and changes in the conditions of the retina, and exactly where the changes. It will determine whether treatment is indicated.


People with a family history of macular degeneration, or vision problems should have regular eye examinations after the age of 45. This will allow early diagnosis of this disease and make some more effective treatments available.

Although macular degeneration can not be prevented, you may be able to delay the onset or slow the progression with:

Do not smoke and avoid secondhand smoke. Smoking is the most commonly identified factors that aggravate the condition.

Avoid contact with ultraviolet rays (UV rays) to wear eye protection that blocks 100% of UV rays.

Proper nutrition – especially the use of balanced and adequate vitamins, minerals and fresh vegetables – are also believed to help prevent the condition, and at least improve overall health.

Regular exercise, which increases both general and eye health.

Research on gene cause macular degeneration continues.


Currently there is no proven treatment for dry macular degeneration, but some people have conditions, a supplement containing vitamins, lutein or some elements such as zinc or selenium may slow the progression of the disease. There is also a proven treatment, where patients are desperate cost as they can in an attempt to regain their sight. Unfortunately it proved useful therapy and therapist usually more than patient.

If diagnosed early, wet macular degeneration may be considered in some patients with laser photocoagulation treatment. A new variation of laser treatment of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the treatment of laser photocoagulation, laser is used to seal leaking blood vessels and inhibit their growth, thus preventing further deterioration of vision.

Now a new injection is used to treat wet macular degeneration. A substance called Avastin or Lucentis inhibits the formation of new blood vessels is injected into the vitreous humor of the eye. It helps to stop the leakage of new blood vessels, which causes damage to the retina. The main purpose of the injection is to prevent further loss of vision, but sometimes actually improve central vision.

In the case of partial blindness caused by macular degeneration “low vision rehabilitation” can help you fix your situation. Rehabilitation may include

adjust the lighting in your home

visual aids and voice-activated devices

seek help from someone with good vision to perform day-to-day work activities

If you have dry macular degeneration cure, doctor or dietitian may recommend nutritional supplements, although the effect is not clinically proven.

Results of treatment

Laser photocoagulation treatment, even if successful, makes a scar and permanent blind spot in the treated area. Vision is usually not going to get better, and sometimes really bad immediately after treatment. However, if you stop the progression of disease in the treated area, this therapy may result in long-term lack of vision loss than if treatment is not provided. It can also reduce the visual distortion. The earlier the condition is diagnosed, the treatment is more successful in slowing disease.

Low vision rehabilitation to enable people with macular degeneration have access to good public transport and help from family or friends to live a relatively normal, even though they are partially blind.

There is extensive research on this condition, both local and international in South Africa. In the field of research including genetics, a new laser, surgical approach and medications.

When to call the doctor

Consult your specialist eye care without delay if you have symptoms of macular degeneration, and should also be regularly tested to ensure that these issues are taken sooner rather than later.

Also, check with your ophthalmologist before trying any treatment. This is to ensure that any “miracle cures” on the market, at least, does not harm your health.

Pterygium, filmy membrane


Many of South Africa is a membrane, a thin filmy with small blood vessels in the whites of their eyes, stretching from the nose to the IRI them. This thickening is called pterygium triangular and spread to the corneal surface and block vision.

There is a popular theory about the cause of pterygium, such as irritation and sun and dust, but none of them proved definitively.

A pterygium tends to run through an active, inflammatory phase and moon phases for calm in slowly growing into the cornea: usually appears during adolescence or early adulthood and grow slowly for several years before becoming a smaller and less active.

Symptoms of irritation such as redness, burning, scratching, dryness and itching common and not to worry if they occur only occasionally and not too serious. Symptoms tend to be more difficult in the early years when the pterygium growing actively.


The pterygium itself is usually harmless and treatment is purely to relieve symptoms when they occur. The pterygium often cause dry eye problems, and most of the symptoms may be relieved by a drop of artificial tears.

Itching to try to decrease in antihistamine over-the-counter, be careful to use it exactly as directed. If inflammation is a prominent feature, a decongestant eye drops are usually effective in reducing symptoms. However, there is a real risk of decongestant drops a vexing problem, and should be used as infrequently as possible and only for short periods.

Oil and sunglasses provide relief of symptoms, but the removal by surgery is the only cure. Recurrence is relatively common.

See your eye doctor if

Your symptoms are not adequately relieved with eye drops above.

Your symptoms may recur frequently.

With pus in the eye or eyelids stuck together on waking in the morning.

Pterygium to cover part of the IRIS and grow into the cornea and into the students.

Is there a vision impairment.

Want pterygium to be removed for cosmetic reasons.

Sometimes it makes pterygium is not acceptable and the issue needed to be removed surgically. Surgery is very successful, but sometimes more aggressive pterygium grows back after surgery, and more surgery should not be done without good reason.

The Many Benefits of Blepharoplasty

If you see your saggy eyelids or moody, it may be time to consider blepharoplasty. This type of operation allows to get rid of any excess skin on each eyelid. The result has many advantages both cosmetic and medical. Before you decide whether you really can benefit from the type of procedure, you should get to know the main reason to get this done.

The most frequently sought after benefit of this technique is that it can help you look younger and more alert. If the bags around your eyes make you look a few years older than your actual age, this operation is relatively simple can be the key to looking younger. This is clearly a cosmetic benefits, but also can improve your self-esteem to know you look younger than ever. Additionally, you can stop taking your questions and concerns of the people who constantly feel tired just because your eyelids look droopy.

If your eyelids are so moody that they block your field of vision, you may benefit from getting blepharoplasty done. In fact, many insurance providers cover this surgery because they can not see the actual health hazard. If you are not confident even able to drive or work because of this issue, it makes sense to get surgery to fix it. Make sure that your insurance provider aware that you find it difficult to carry safely without fixing this problem. Your doctor will probably have to prove that to make sure your technique is considered necessary.

Another medical problems that can arise from having a melancholy eyelid is that your glasses may not fit. When your eyelids bigger than they should cause excess skin, you may find it difficult to keep your glasses on your face as close as possible. You can also have a hard time putting contacts and remove them because of excess tissue in the eye area. Additionally, you may find that your eyes are dry when the eyelids can not close properly due to excessive tissue.

You may find yourself dealing with only one or some of these issues, and blepharoplasty can fix all of this. Of course, only a doctor can tell you if you want to be a good candidate for this surgery. If the extra tissue around your eyes while this affects your appearance, health, or self-esteem, you should look into surgery to fix this problem.

Hypoallergenic makeup for Sensitive Skin

Some women feel that the best way to cover up their shortcomings are piling forming. Apply it with a thick layer of foundation, blush, eye shadow, eyeliner and mascara so nobody would see imperfections such as wrinkles, under-eye circles or pimples. It is true that there is no deficiency notice a woman when she has his or her own too much make-up because all they see is not attractive layered with thick foundation and eye shadow. Does a woman have a weakness or not, they always look better wearing natural looking makeup for Women makeup.

Natural all Ages Women should choose sheer liquid foundation, eye shadow earthy colors and light lipstick or lip-gloss . A little blush and eyeliner is fine for a night on the town, but the women do not need to wear blush and eyeliner today. When applying makeup aim should be to enhance the eyes and lips. If people see a woman wearing make-up before they see the features of his face, then it is time to things that depreciate. Although many older women wish they could cover their wrinkles and circles under the eyes, heavy makeup often made even more visible wrinkles. Older women usually look years younger when they mitigate their skin Products Women makeup.

Sensitive with sensitive skin sometimes avoid wearing any kind of make-up because they are afraid it will irritate the skin, eyes or lips. Women who are allergic to makeup may experience intense itching or burning. In some cases, they develop acne, red rash or itching after using makeup. Allergic reaction to eye shadow, mascara or lipstick can cause unpleasant symptoms such as pain, itching and swelling. Women who experience negative symptoms should switch to a hypoallergenic makeup brands. Soft hypoallergenic products because they do not contain harsh chemicals.

People find hypoallergenic liquid foundation, mascara, eyeliner and eye shadow to retail stores and online. Small proportion of women are very sensitive to chemicals that do not tolerate hypoallergenic products. Unfortunately, all of these products over-the-counter makeup contains a number of chemicals. Women very sensitive to chemicals can make their own homemade organic makeup. People can find a fantastic recipe for eyeliner, lipstick, blush, eye shadow and liquid foundation online. Homemade makeup that does not contain artificial ingredients gentle on skin. People can use all natural ingredients such as coconut oil, powdered fruit extract, beeswax and vanilla when making homemade products. It may seem strange to make homemade cosmetics, but women have to make your own beauty products for centuries.

Tips For tanning salons

Tanning will continue to grow in popularity, and many people prefer the convenience of visiting their local tanning salon. Visiting the salon can be a great experience if you are looking for a tan out in the future, or keep your current tan. Here are some simple tips you can follow to improve your tanning experience. It valuable space your visits to the tanning salon. The FDA requires a minimum of twenty four hours between visits, but the professionals will tell you that the 48 hours is even better. It gives your skin a chance to recover from UV rays and create melanin that gives skin color.

Every tanning salon sells various Lotion. It is important to use the right type of lotion and not a cream that you can use for a typical day at the beach. A tanning salon lotion tanning accelerator is often called because they help your skin get more UV rays and keep your color. Most tanning salon salesman working on commission and you can sometimes negotiate to get free or discounted indoor tanning lotion if you are new to the salon. If not, you can often find a discount online through vendors. Before apply the lotion you have to prepare your skin for tanning beds. It involves cleansing the skin and remove dead skin flakes by loufa. Once the skin cells are removed you should use a mild unscented lotion. Tan skin moist is much better than dry skin, and also contribute to a more even tan. By taking this action you are preparing your skin for the big tan.

How long you spend in a tanning bed really depends on several things. First and foremost you should know what type of skin you have. Most people use the Fitzpatrick scale starting with those with the fairest skin in a level. People with a degree of skin always burn and never tan, and usually have very fair skin. Scale ends at six levels consisting of people with very dark skin, never burns, and brown easily.

If very new to the tanning salon you should consult an expert there on how long you have to spend time in a tanning bed. The average time most people start at about seven minutes. Those with dark skin, or who frequently visit tanning salon, sometimes it works up to twenty minutes in a tanning bed. Once your tan is complete you should let your skin rest for 3-4 hours before showering. This will allow you to keep tan skin and brown for set. Following these simple tips should greatly improve your tanning salon experience. Be sure to do some research to find out how much time you should spend on a tanning bed Lotion and which type is best for your skin.